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蝇虫的种类与危害 Species and harms of flies

  1、苍蝇种类及危害   

  苍蝇的生物学分类属于昆虫纲、双翅目、环裂亚目,它的种类很多,有住区蝇类和非住区蝇类,与卫生有关的住区蝇类不多。常见的有家蝇、市蝇、大头金蝇、绿蝇、麻蝇等几种。苍蝇对人的危害,除侵入住宅和工作环境骚扰及少数蝇种刺螫吸血外,主要是能传播多种传染病,如痢疾、伤寒、霍乱、脊髓灰质炎、砂眼、结核病、乙型肝炎等多种病原体。

  Species and harms of flies:   

  According to biological classification, fly belongs to cyclorrhapha, diptera, insecta. It has various species, which can be divided into two major categories: house fly and non-house fly. Sanitation-related flies are in a small amount. Most frequently seen flies include housefly, musca sorbens, chrysomyia megacephala, cryptolucilia caesarion and flesh fly, etc. Flies not only pollute living and working environment or suck blood (a few species), but also spread pathogens of various diseases including malaria, typhoid, cholera, poliomyelitis, abscess, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, etc.

   ①传播方式:   

  a.是以多毛的体表,特别是跗节、爪垫和唇瓣在取食过程中从人、畜粪便、鼻、咽、眼分泌物和呕吐物等脏物上粘附大量病原体,以机械携带方式,污染人们的食物、器皿等而传播疾病;

  Means of spread:   

  While sucking excrement and urine of human and livestock, secretion of nose, pharynx and eyes as well as vomits, it's hairy body surface, especially tarsi, pulvilli and labella pollute food and household utensils and thus spread diseases.   

  b.是吞食食物病原体进入消化道,随蝇粪排到人类食物上;   

  The pathogens enter the fly's alimentary canal and were discharged on people's food with the fly's excrement.   

  c.是吸血蝇类在吸血过程中造成血液感染。 Blood infection in bloodsucking

  ②、常见蝇种的区分: How to distinguish common flies:

  1、家蝇:又名舍蝇,体灰黑色,胸背有纵纹四条,是五种常见蝇类数量最多、与人类关系最密切的一种,是痢疾、伤寒、霍乱、脊髓灰质炎、结核病、乙型肝炎等的主要传播蝇种;   

  Housefly: Body in light black. Four vertical lines on the back. It tops the five common flies in quantity and thus is most closely related to human. It is a major kind of flies spreading malaria, typhoid, cholera, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, etc.


  2、市蝇:又名山蝇,形态与家蝇相似,但体较小,体色较灰,胸背有纵纹两条,雄蝇这两条纵纹前部分叉。是携带痢疾、伤寒、霍乱病毒的重要传播媒介;   

  Musca sorbens: Also named hill fly, Gray in body. Similar to housefly in shape, but smaller. There are two vertical lines on the back. For female flies, the two lines bifurcate at the front end. It mainly spreads malaria, typhoid, and cholera.


  3、大头金蝇:体大,大眼深鲜红,体绿色有光泽。是传播痢疾的 重要媒介之一;

  Chrysomyia megacephala: Relatively large in size. Eyes in crimson and body in green with sheen. It is an one of the important medias for malaria.


  4、铜绿蝇:体比金蝇较小,体绿色有金属光泽,眼较小暗红色。可携带痢疾、伤寒、霍乱、脊髓灰质炎、肝炎等多种病原体;   

  Cryptolucilia caesarion: Smaller than Chrysomyia megacephala. Body in green with sheen and small eyes in crimson. It carries pathogens of various diseases including malaria, typhoid, cholera, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, hepatitis , etc


  5、麻蝇:体长大,灰色,胸背有黑色纵纹三条,腹背部有棋盘格状花纹。是伤寒、霍乱的重要传播媒介之一。   

  Flesh fly: Body, long and large. Gray. There three black vertical lines on the back and chessboard-grid-shaped color lines on the abdomen. It is an important media spreading malaria and cholera.

  蝇类传播的微生物很多,已证实病毒约30种,细菌100多种,原虫30多种并可携带多种蠕虫卵等。   

  Flies spread various microorganisms and carry worm eggs. Up to now, 30 species of virus, 100-plus species of bacteria and 30 species of protozoon have been discovered.   

  蝇虫雌雄的区分:雄性侧额约和间额等宽,雌性侧额约为间额的2/3; 雄性后腹部有亮黑色或红色小球状的膨腹端,雌性则无。   

  How to distinguish male and female flies: The male fly's parafrontalia is about the same width with its interfrontali, while the femal's parafrontalia is about 2/3 of the width of its interfrontali; There is a bright black or red ball-shaped hypopygium on the rear abdomen of male flies, but not on female flies.

 

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