蚊虫的种类与危害 Species and harms of mosquitoes
Mosquito is a global destructive hematophagous bug. It not only
stings people and disturbs their peace, but also spreads numerous
kinds of diseases to human. The diseases spread by mosquitoes are
called mosquito-borne infectious diseases in general. In China,
mosquito-borne infectious diseases include malaria, filarial, epidemic
Japanese B encephalitis, and dengue fever. The purpose of wiping
out mosquitoes is to prevent mosquito-borne infectious diseases,
safeguard people's health and create a good living environment.
As the prevention and control of mosquitoes is a scientific social
campaign, we have to get familiar with their species distribution,
and biological behavior as well as proper measures to control them.
Species and harms of mosquitoes
Mosquito belongs to Culicidae, Nemocera, Diptera, Insecta, Arthropoda.
It is a global destructive bug. At present, there are more than
3200 species of mosquitoes identified in the world, among which
more than 100 species of 12 genera (subspecies) are found in Guangdong
Province. The typical genera that spread diseases include anopheles,
aedes and culex. Mosquitoes are nocturnal insects, suck blood of
human and livestock or juice of plants. Male ones only drink juice
of plants while female ones suck human blood. The major two harms
caused by mosquitoes are as follows:
Mosquitoes severely affect people's routine life and bring inconvenience
through disturbance, sting, and bloodsucking; Sensitization: when
a mosquito stings the host, it uses its saliva as a main antigen,
which leads to allergic reaction of the host body (mainly on skin).
Apart from sting, the major harm of mosquitoes lies in the diseases
they spread, including malaria (1094 and 2004 in Daya Bay District),
dengue fever (Hong Kong and Guangzhou), filarial, epidemic and Japanese
B encephalitis, etc, which pose a great threat to people's health.
What is worse, Infection by mosquito-carried virus may lead to disability,
or even death.
How to distinguish common mosquitoes：
The siphons of male and female mosquitoes are different in formation.
The male mosquito's mandible and maxilla are degenerated, so its
siphon is not capable of bloodsucking, while a male mosquito has
a well developed piercing siphon that is fit for bloodsucking.
Culex fatigans： Also named culex or home mosquito, small
and deep-gray. It is one of the major medias for filarial
and epidemic and Japanese B encephalitis
Aedes albopictus: Commonly referred to as black spot or
color spot mosquito. There are white spots on its body and
a vertical white line on the sternum. It is a major media
for epidemic and Japanese B encephalitis and dengue fever.
Anopheles sinensis: Body in deep-gray, with black or white
spots on the wings. The palpi and siphon are of equal length,
and a palpus is made up of ring-shaped black and white scales;
When stationary, its rear tilts upward ,forming an angle with
the staionary part. It is the one of the major medias for
malaria and filariasis bancrofti.